The Qur’an of Sultan Baibars II, 1304 CE


In 1304 CE, Bahri Mamluk Sultan Rukn al-Din Baibars, or Sultan Baibars II commissioned a Qur’an, which was completed in 1306 CE. The seven-volume Qur’an is handwritten in gold, in a form of thuluth, a cursive Arabic script that was usually reserved for ornamental headings.


It was prepared by a highly talented calligrapher Muhammad ibn al-Wahid and the master illuminator Abu Bakr.



Title: Volume one of a seven-volume Qur’an commissioned by Rukn al-Dīn Baybars, later Sultan Baybars II

Source: British Library

Sultan Baibars II was the 12th Sultan of the Bahri Mamluk dynasty of Egypt. He commissioned this project before ascending the throne. Later he ruled from 1309 to 1310 CE.

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