Campaign of Tabuk, October 26, 630

On October 26*, 630, the Prophet Muhammad set out on his last campaign for Tabuk after hearing about a Byzantine invasion of Medina led by emperor Heraclius. 

According to PK Hitti, the expedition turned out to be a bloodless campaign. According to AI Akram, the Byzantines had withdrawn to Damascus after hearing about a massive Muslim army. 

However, al-Waqidi states that the Prophet had received the news that the Byzantines were gathering troops and threatening to attack Medina. After reaching Tabuk, the Prophet discovered that the information he had received was exaggerated and decided to return to Medina.

The Prophet of Islam had assembled an army of 30,000 or 40,000 men and marched towards Tabuk (in present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia). This was the largest army that had ever assembled under the standard of the Prophet. The Prophet made a halt for twenty days at Tabuk. As a result, a number of nearby tribes came under the control of the Muslims. 

On his return from Tabuk, many delegations flocked from near and far to offer allegiance to the Prophet. Therefore, this year 9 (630-31) is called the “year of delegations” (Sanat al-Wufud). Tribe after tribe, the Arabs embraced Islam and united under the banner of Islam.


Khalidi, W., Hitti, P. K. (2002). History of The Arabs. Spain: Palgrave Macmillan.

The History of Al-Tabari Vol. 9: The Last Years of the Prophet: The Formation of the State A.D. 630-632/A.H. 8-11. (2015). United States: State University of New York Press.

Ali, K. (2006). A Study of Islamic History. India: Adam Publishers & Distributors.

Akram, A. I. (2017). Sword of Allah: Khalid Bin Al-Waleed His Life & Campaigns. India: Adam Publishers & Distributors.

The Life of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab Al-Maghazi. (2013). United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis.

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