Abdülmecid II becomes the last Islamic and Ottoman Caliph, 1922 CE

Today on the 18th of November in 1922 CE, Ottoman prince Abdülmecid II became the last Islamic and Ottoman Caliph. Ottoman Sultanate was already abolished. So, the Caliph was now severed from all political power. Later, when Mustafa Kemal proclaimed the Turkish Republic, the Caliphate office was totally abolished in 1924.

Last Ottoman Caliph Abdulmejid II (center) with his daughter Princess Dürrüşehvar Sultan (left), and Nawab Azam Jah (Husband of Dürrüşehvar Sultan), Nawab of Hyderabad, India (right) | Photo: Wikimedia

The title of Caliph was now only a symbol that linked the new Turkey to the Islamic-Ottoman past. But Mustafa Kemal broke that Islamic past and led the foundation of a secular state.

The new republic of Turkey was now largely recognized by Europe. The Grand National Assembly abolished the caliphate. The next day Abdülmecid was exiled permanently from Turkey. Later, he died in exile in France but was buried in Medina.

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