Sultan Sikandar Lodi dies, 1517 CE, a brief biography

Today on the 21st of November in 1517 CE, the second Sultan of the Lodi Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, Sultan Sikandar Lodi died after a glorious reign of 28 years. Sikandar was the most successful Sultan of the Lodi Dynasty. He expanded the Lodi empire by conquering the regions of Dholpur (Rajasthan), Gwalior (MP), and Bihar.

Tomb of Sikandar Lodi, Lodi Gardens, Delhi | Photo: Wikimedia

Sikandar Lodi succeeded his father Bahlul Lodi when he died in 1489 CE. At his death, Bahlul Lodi had divided the kingdom among his sons. Therefore, Sikandar had to undo what his father left after a hard struggle (Prof. Satish Chandra).

Sikandar Lodi was an effective administrator who established a powerful government in his kingdom. He laid great emphasis on justice and punished them who embezzled the money and made corruption. All the highways and roads were made safe from the robbers and bandits. During his rule, the prices of all essential commodities were remarkably low.

Sikandar Lodi was a great patron of scholarship and fine arts. He encouraged and invited scholars, philosophers, and poets from all around India and the Muslim world. Due to his efforts, a number of Sanskrit works were translated into Persian, including the rare works of Sanskrit on music.

As a result, a large number of Hindus started learning Persian and were later recruited to various administrative posts. This great initiative brought effective cultural development and exchange between the Hindus and Muslims.

Sikandar Lodi also founded the famous Indian city Agra, which became the capital of the dynasty in 1506 CE. Later, Agra became a very key city during the Mughal rule in India. By the time of his death, the Lodi enjoyed their greatest power. When his son Ibrahim Lodi ascended the throne, he failed at what his father had achieved.

Battle of Panipat

During this time, another great power was rising in Afghanistan. Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire in India, was invited and convinced by Rana Sanga and Daulat Khan Lodi to invade the Lodi dynasty and replace Ibrahim Lodi (Prof. Satish Chandra). As a result, Ibrahim Lodi and Babur met in the Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526. Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and this marked the end of both the Delhi Sultanate and the Lodi Dynasty. 

The Lodi dynasty was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. There became a total of 3 Sultans who ruled the dynasty. In 1526 CE, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last Lodi Sultan, in the battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire. Ibrahim’s defeat marked the end of the Delhi Sultanate.

Delhi Sultanate (1206 – 1526 CE)

Delhi Sultanate was the first Muslim dynasty of India that ruled from 1206 to 1526 CE. Previously, the Ghurids had already ruled the major parts of northern India. But, they were mainly based in Afghanistan. It was a Ghurid general Qutb al-Din Aibak who founded the Delhi Sultanate by establishing the Mamluk Sultanate (or the Slave dynasty) in India. 

List of dynasties that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1526 CE

  1. Mamluk/Slave dynasty (1206–1290)
  2. Khilji dynasty (1290–1320)
  3. Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414)
  4. Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451)
  5. Lodi dynasty (1451–1526)

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